Rules of Namaz » Introduction
Namaz is the best among all acts of worship. If it is accepted by the Almighty Allah, other acts of worship are also accepted. And, if prayers are not accepted, other acts are also not accepted.
Offering of prayers five times during day and night purifies us of sins in the same manner as bathing five times during day and night makes our body clean of all filth and dirt.
It is befitting that one should offer prayers punctually. A person who considers prayers to be something ordinary and unimportant is just like one who does not offer prayers at all. The holy Prophet has said that a person who does not attach any importance to prayers and considers it to be something insignificant deserves chastisement in the hereafter.
Once, while the holy Prophet was present in the Mosque (i.e. Masjidun Nabi), a man entered and began offering prayers but did not perform the Ruku' and Sajdah properly. The holy Prophet said: "If this man dies and his prayers continue to be this way, he will not depart on my religion". Hence, one should not offer one's prayers hurriedly. While offering prayers one should remember Allah constantly and should offer the prayers humbly and with all solemnity. One should keep in mind the Greatness of Almighty Allah with whom one communes while offering prayers and should consider oneself to be very humble and insignificant before His Grandeur and Glory.
And if a person keeps himself absorbed in these thoughts while performing prayers he becomes unmindful and oblivious to himself, just as when an arrow was pulled out of the foot of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (peace be on him) while he was offering prayers but he did not become aware of it.
Furthermore, one who performs prayers should be repentant and should refrain from all sins and especially those which are an impediment in the way of acceptance of one's prayers (e.g. jealousy, pride, backbiting, eating haraam things, drinking intoxicating beverages, non-payment of Khums and Zakat). In fact, he should refrain from all sins.
Similarly, he should avoid acts which diminish the reward for prayers like praying when one is drowsy or restless because of an urge to urinate, and while offering prayers he should not look up towards the sky. On the other hand, one should perform such acts which increase the reward like wearing an Aqiq, wearing clean clothes, combing the hair, brushing the teeth and using perfume.
Rules of Namaz » Obligatory Namaz
The following six prayers are obligatory:
Namaz for the obligatory Tawaf of the holy Ka'bah.
Qadha Namaz of father which are, as a precaution, obligatory upon his eldest son.
Namaz which become obligatory on account of hire, vow or oath.
Namaz-e-Jumuah is included in the Daily Namaz.
Rules of Namaz » Obligatory daily Namaz
It is obligatory to perform the following five prayers during day and night:
Dawn prayers (Fajr) - 2 Rak'ats.
Midday (Zuhr) and Afternoon prayers ('Asr) - each one consisting of 4 Rak'ats.
Dusk prayers (Maghrib) - 3 Rak'ats and Night prayers ('Isha) - 4 Rak'ats.
736. While travelling, a traveller should reduce the prayers of 4 Rak'ats to 2 Rak'ats. The conditions under which the Rak'ats are reduced will be mentioned later.
Rules of Namaz » Time for Zuhr and Asr prayers
737. If a stick, a pole, or anything similar to it, which acts as an indicator (shakhis) is made to stand on a level ground, its shadow will fall westwards when the sun rises in the morning, and as the sun continues to rise the shadow cast by the indicator will reduce in size. And in our cities it becomes smallest at the time of the commencement of Zuhr. And as Zuhr passes the shadow cast by the indicator turns eastwards, and as the sun moves towards west the shadow gets longer. Based on this, when the shadow is the shortest, and it begins getting longer again, it is known that Zuhr has taken place. However, in other cities like in Mecca, the shadow disappears totally, so, when it reappears it indicates Zuhr.
738. The time for Zuhr and Asr prayers is from when the sun starts declining at midday till sunset. But, if a person intentionally offers Asr prayers earlier than Zuhr prayers, his prayer is void. However, if a person had not prayed Zuhr till the end of time, and the time left before Qadha allows only one Namaz to be prayed, he will first offer Asr prayers in time and then his Zuhr will be Qadha. And if before that time a person offers complete Asr prayers before Zuhr prayers by mistake, his prayer is valid. But as a recommended precaution, he should treat that Namaz as Zuhr and should offer 4 more Rak'ats of prayers with the intention of relieving oneself of responsibility, if any (Ala mafi zzimmah).
739. If a person begins offering Asr prayers forgetfully before Zuhr prayers and during the prayers he realises that he has committed a mistake, he should revert his Niyyat to Zuhr prayers i.e. he should intend that from now onwards till the end of the prayers, it would be Zuhr prayers. After completing the prayers, he will offer Asr prayers.
Rules of Namaz » Namaz-e-Jumuah
740. Friday prayers consists of 2 Rak'ats like Fajr prayers. The difference between these two prayers is that Namaz-e-Jumuah has two sermons before it. Namaz-e-Jumuah is Wajib Takhyiri, which means that we have an option to offer Jumuah prayers, if its necessary conditions are fulfilled, or to offer Zuhr prayers. Hence, if Namaz-e-Jumuah is offered then it is not necessary to offer Zuhr prayer.
The following conditions must be fulfilled for Jumuah prayers to become obligatory:
The time for Jumuah prayers should have set in. And that means that the midday time should have begun to decline. The time for Namaz-e-Jumuah is the earliest part of Zuhr. If it is very much delayed, then Namaz-e-Jumuah time will be over, and Zuhr Namaz will have to be prayed.
The number of persons joining Namaz-e-Jumuah should be at least five, including the Imam. If there are less than five people, Namaz-e-Jumuah would not become obligatory.
The Imam should fulfil the necessary conditions for leading the prayers. These conditions include righteousness ('Adalat) and other qualities which are required of an Imam and which will be mentioned in connection with the congregational prayers. In absence of an Imam qualifying to lead, Namaz-e-Jumuah will not be obligatory.
The following conditions should be fulfilled for the Namaz-e-Jumuah to be correct:
The prayers should be offered in congregation. Hence, Namaz-e-Jumuah cannot be prayed alone. If a person joins Namaz-e-Jumuah before the Ruku of the second Rak'at his prayers will be valid and he will have to add another Rak'at to complete it. But, if he joins the Imam in the Ruku of the second Rak'at then the prayers may not suffice, and as a measure of precaution Zuhr Namaz should be prayed.
Two sermons should be delivered before the prayers. In the first sermon the preacher should praise Allah and exhort the people to observe piety, and then he should also recite a short chapter (Surah) from the holy Qur'an. Thereafter he should sit down for a while and then stand up again. This time also he should praise Allah and invoke peace and blessings upon the holy Prophet and the holy Imams and, as a recommended precaution, seek forgiveness for the believers. It is necessary that the two sermons should precede the Namaz. It will not be correct to offer the prayers before the two sermons. And, it is not permissible to deliver the sermons before Zuhr time has set in. It is also necessary that the preacher should be standing while delivering the sermons. Hence, if he delivers sermons while sitting, it will not be in order. It is also necessary and obligatory that there should be a break between the two sermons by way of sitting down during the interval for a while. It is also necessary that the preacher who delivers the sermons should also lead the prayers. Taharat may not be a condition for delivering the sermons, but as a precaution, it should be maintained. As far as the glory of Allah, invocation of prayers and mercy upon the Prophet and the Imams are concerned, it must be rendered in Arabic, but the rest of it need not be in Arabic. In fact, if the majority in the audience are non-Arabs, then as an obligatory precaution, words of admonition and exhorting people to be pious and virtuous should be delivered in their language.
The distance between the two places where Namaze-Jumuah are offered should not be less than one Farsakh (3 miles). Hence if the distance between the two places is lesser and both the prayers commence at one and the same time both will be void. And if one of those prayers precedes the other (even to the extent of Takbiratul-ehram i.e. the first Takbir) the one which precedes will be in order and the other will be void. If, it transpires after the Namaz-e-Jumuah is over that another Namaz-e-Jumuah had commenced earlier or simultaneously at a distance of less than farsakh, it will not be obligatory to offer Zuhr prayers. It is immaterial whether this information is received within the time or later. Moreover, a Namaz-e-Jumuah can stop another from being held within the stipulated distance only if it is itself valid, comprising of all conditions, otherwise it cannot have any prohibitive effect.
741. When Namaz-e-Jumuah, with all its requirements is held, it will be obligatory to attend it if one who established it is Imam (A.S.) or his representative. But in a situation other than this, joining or attending it is not obligatory.
When attending is obligatory, the following points must be considered:
The person joining should be man. Presence in Jumuah prayers is not obligatory for women.
Freedom. Hence it is not obligatory for a slave to be present in Jumuah prayers.
Not being a traveller. Hence Jumuah prayers is not obligatory for a traveller, regardless of whether the traveller prays Qasr or full prayers, as he would do if he intends staying for 10 days or more.
Being free from ailment and blindness. Hence it is not obligatory for a sick or a blind man to offer Jumuah prayers.
Not being old. Hence Jumuah prayers is not obligatory for old men.
That the distance between the place a person is and where Jumuah prayers is going to be held should not be more than 2 farsakh (11 Km) and it would be obligatory for a person who is at the end of 2 farsakh to join the Namaz. And similarly, participation in Jumuah prayers will not be obligatory for a person who finds it extremely difficult, because of rains, severe cold and so on.
742. A few rules concerning Jumuah prayers:
It is permissible for a person, who is exempted from Jumuah prayers, and for whom presence in Jumuah prayers is not obligatory, to hasten for Zuhr prayers in the early part of its time.
It is Makrooh to talk while Imam delivers the sermon. And if the noise created by talking prevents others from listening to the sermon, then it is haraam, regardless of whether the attendance is the minimum required or more.
As an obligatory precaution, it is wajib to listen to both the sermons. However, listening to the sermons is not obligatory upon those, who do not understand their meanings.
The second Adhan on Friday is an innovation. And it is the same Adhan which is usually called the third Adhan.
It is not obligatory for a person wishing to join Jumuah Namaz to be present while Imam is delivering the sermon.
Conducting purchase and sale at the time when people are called to Jumuah prayers is haraam, if it hinders the prayers, and not if it does not hinder. And inspite of it being haraam, the transaction done would not be void. When it was obligatory for a person to be present in Jumuah prayers and he abandoned it, and offered Zuhr prayers, his prayers would be in order.
Rules of Namaz » Time for Maghrib and Isha prayers
743. The obligatory precaution is that as long as the redness in the eastern sky appearing after sunset has not passed overhead, Maghrib Namaz should not be performed.
744. In normal circumstances, the prescribed time for Maghrib and Isha prayers is till midnight. But if forgetfulness, oversleeping or being in Hayz and similar unusual situations prevent one from performing the prayers till midnight, then for them the time will continue till Fajr sets in. In all the cases, Maghrib must be prayed before Isha, and if one contradicts their sequence purposely or knowingly, the Namaz will be void. However, if the time left over is just enough for Isha prayers to be offered within time, then Isha will precede Maghrib prayers.
745. If a person offers Isha prayers before Maghrib prayers by mistake and takes notice of this after completing the prayers, his prayers will be valid, and then he should offer Maghrib prayers after it.
746. If a person begins Isha prayers by mistake before Maghrib prayers and realises during the prayers that he has made an error, and if he has not yet gone into Ruku of the 4th Rak'at he should turn his Niyyat to Maghrib prayers and complete the prayers. Thereafter he will offer Isha prayers. However, if he has entered Ruku of the 4th Rak'at he can continue to complete the Isha prayers and thereafter pray Maghrib.
747. In normal circumstances, the end of the time for Isha prayers is midnight; and the night will be calculated from dawn (Subh-e-Sadiq).
748. If a person in normal circumstances does not offer Maghrib or Isha prayers till after midnight, he should, as an obligatory precaution, offer the prayers in question before the dawn prayers, without making a Niyyat of Ada (i.e. in time) or Qadha (i.e. after the lapse of time).
Rules of Namaz » Time for Fajr prayer
749. Just before dawn a column of whiteness rises upwards from the east. It is called the first dawn. When this whiteness spreads, it is called the second dawn, and the Prime time for Subh prayers. The time for Subh prayers is till sunrise.
Rules of Namaz » Rules regarding Namaz times
750. A person can start offering prayers only when be becomes certain that the time has set in or when two just (Adil) persons inform that the time has set in. In fact, one can rely upon the Adhan, or on advice of a person who knows the timings and is reliable.
751. If a person cannot be certain about the Prime time for prayers due to a personal handicap like blindness or being in the prison cell, he should delay the prayer till such time when he feels sure that the time has set in. And as an obligatory precaution, he should act the same way when there are general hindrances like dust or clouds.
752. If a person is satisfied on the basis of any one of the above methods that the time for prayers has set in and he begins offering prayers, but then realises during the prayers that the time has not yet set in, his prayer is void. And the position is the same if he realises after the prayers that he has offered the entire prayers before time. However, if one learns as he prays that the time has just entered or if he learns after the prayers that the time entered while he was in the process of praying, his Namaz will be valid.
753. If a person is heedless of the fact that he should pray after ensuring that the time has set in, and if he realises after the prayers that he had offered the entire prayers in time, his prayer is in order. And if he realises that he had offered his prayers before time or does not realise whether he had offered the prayers within time or not, his prayers will be void. In fact, if he realises after offering prayers that the time for prayers had set in while he was praying, he should offer that prayers again.
754. If a person was certain that the time for prayers had set in, and began offering prayers but while praying, he doubted whether or not the time for it had actually set in, his prayers would be void. However, if he is certain while offering prayers that the time for it has set in, but doubts whether what he has already performed in the prayer, has been in time or not, his prayer is valid.
755. If the time left for Namaz is so little that if we perform some Mustahab acts of the prayers, an obligatory part of the prayers will fall beyond the prescribed time, one should not perform those Mustahab acts. For example, if on account of reciting qunut a part of the prayers will lapse beyond time, one should do without qunut.
756. If the time at the disposal of a person is sufficient for performing one Rak'at only he should offer the prayers with the Niyyat of Ada, i.e. offering the same in time. However, one should not delay offering prayers intentionally.
757. If a person who is not a traveller has at his disposal time for offering five Rak'ats till sunset he should offer both Zuhr and Asr prayers. And if he has less time than that he should offer only Asr prayers, and thereafter he should give Qadha of Zuhr prayers. Similarly if he has sufficient time upto midnight for offering five Rak'ats, he should offer Maghrib and Isha prayers and if he has less time than that he should offer only Isha prayers and then offer Maghrib prayers, without making a Niyyat of Ada (i.e. being in time) or Qadha.
758. If a person who is a traveller has sufficient time at his disposal till sunset for offering three Rak'ats he should offer Zuhr and Asr prayers and if he has lesser time than that, he should offer only Asr prayers and then offer Qadha of Zuhr prayers. And if he has time enough for offering 4 Rak'ats till midnight he should offer Maghrib and Isha prayers, and if he has just enough time for three Rak'ats he should offer Isha first and then Maghrib so that at least one Rak'at falls within time. And if the time is for lesser than three Rak'ats, then he should first offer Isha prayers, followed by Maghrib without the Niyyat of Ada or Qadha. However, if he learns after completing Isha prayers that there is still time for at least one Rak'at, or more, he should hasten to offer Maghrib with the Niyyat of Ada.
759. It is Mustahab that a person should offer prayers at the Prime time prescribed for it, and great emphasis has been laid on it; alternatively, the nearer the prayers are to its Prime time, the better, except where there is good reason for delay, like, waiting to join the prayers in congregation (Namaz-e-Jamaat).
760. If a person has a justifiable excuse for offering prayers with tayammum and he wishes to offer it at the Prime time knowing that his excuse will continue till the end of the prescribed time, or having no hope for redress, he can offer prayers in the early part of the time. But if he has a hope that the excuse will cease to exist, he should wait till his excuse is removed. In case his excuse is not removed, he would offer prayers in the last part of the time. But, in so doing, it is not necessary that he should wait so much that he may be able to perform only the obligatory acts of the prayers. In fact, if he has time for the Mustahab acts like Adhan, Iqamah and qunut as well, he can perform tayammum and offer prayers along with these Mustahab acts. As for other excuses which do not justify tayammum, it is permissible for him to offer prayers at its Prime time, even if he has not lost hope about redress. However, if the excuse actually ceases to exist while he is praying, he must repeat the prayers.
761. If a person does not know the rules about prayers, doubts occurring in it, or about the forgotten parts, and if he feels that such problems would probably arise in his Namaz, he should defer from its Prime time so as to learn the relevant rules. However, if he is hopeful that he can offer prayers correctly he may pray at its Prime time. And if no problem arose during the prayers, his prayers would be correct and valid. But if a problem arose and the rules relating to it were not known to him, he would be allowed to act on one of the two probabilities and complete the prayers. And, after the prayers, he should enquire about the rule so that if his prayers had been void he would offer it again, and if it had been valid, he need not repeat.
762. If there is ample time for prayers, and at the same time his creditor demands repayment of his loan from him, he should repay the loan first, if possible, and then offer prayers. Similarly, if there emerges another obligatory matter which demands immediate attention, like if a man sees that the Masjid is Najis he should make it Pak first and then offer prayers. And in both the cases if he offers his prayers first he commits a sin but his prayer is in order.
Rules of Namaz » The prayers which should be performed in sequence
763. One should always offer Asr prayers after the Zuhr prayers, and the Isha prayers after the Maghrib prayers. If one intentionally offers Asr prayers before Zuhr prayers, or Isha prayers before Maghrib prayers, one's prayers would be void.
764. If a person starts namaz with the niyyat of Zuhr prayers, and during the prayers he recollects that he has already offered Zuhr prayers, he is not allowed to change the niyyat to the Asr prayers.He should abandon that namaz, and start Asr namaz. And the same rule applies to the Maghrib and the Isha namaz.
765. If a person somehow becomes sure while offering the Asr prayers that he has not offered the Zuhr prayers, and changes niyyat to the Zuhr prayers, but later he recollects that he has infact already offered the Zuhr prayers, he can again revert to Asr, and complete the prayers, provided that he has not performed important parts like Ruku', Sajdah or any other part with the niyyat of Zuhr, otherwise his prayers will be void, and he has to offer all over again.
766. If, while offering the Asr prayers, a man doubts whether he has offered the Zuhr prayers, he should complete his namaz with the same niyyat of Asr, and then pray Zuhr. However, if the time is so short, that that the sun would set by the time he finishes the prayers, and there would be no time left even for one Rak'at, then it is not necessary to pray Zuhr namaz as Qadha.
767. If, while offering the Isha prayers, a man doubts whether he has offered Maghrib prayers, he should complete the namaz with the same niyyat of Isha. But if the time is short, and he will not be able to perform even one Rak'at after completion of Isha, it is not necessary to pray Maghrib as Qadha.
768. If while offering Isha prayers, a person doubts after reaching the Ruku of the 4th Rak'at, whether he has offered Maghrib prayers, he should complete the Isha Prayers. Thereafter, he should pray Maghrib, if the time for it is still available (i.e. if it is not Qadha).
769. If a person is praying a particular namaz again as a precaution, and during the prayers he recollects that he has not offered the preceding namaz, he cannot change niyyat to that prayers. For example, when offering the Asr prayers again as a measure of precaution, he recollects that he has not offered the Zuhr prayers, he cannot change niyyat to Zuhr prayers.
770. It is not permissible to change niyyat from Qadha to Ada (i.e. prayers which is offered within the prescribed time), nor from Mustahab to obligatory prayers.
771. If a person has sufficient time at his disposal to offer prayers within the time, he can, while offering the prayers, change niyyat to Qadha prayers, provided that it is possible to do so. For example, if he is offering Zuhr prayers, he can change to Qadha of dawn prayers, only when he has not entered the Ruku of the third Rak'at.
Rules of Namaz » Mustahab prayers
772. There are many Mustahab prayers which are generally called Nafilah, but more stress has been laid on the daily Mustahab prayers. The number of the Rak'ats everyday excluding Friday, is 34. It is an follows:
8 Rak'ats Nafilah for Zuhr
8 Rak'ats Nafilah for Asr
4 Rak'ats Nafilah for Maghrib
2 Rak'ats Nafilah for Isha
11 Rak'ats Nafilah for Tahajjud (Namaz-e-Shab)
2 Rak'ats Nafilah for Fajr
As an obligatory precaution, the Nafilah for Isha prayers should be offered while sitting, and therefore its 2 Rak'ats are counted as one. But on Friday, 4 Rak'ats are added to the 16 Rak'ats of the Zuhr and the Asr Nafilah, and it is preferable that all these 20 Rak'ats are offered before the Zuhr sets in.
773. Out of the 11 Rak'ats of the night Nafilah, 8 Rak'ats should be offered with the niyyat of the Nafilah, 2 Rak'ats with the niyyat of Shaf'a, and 1 Rak'at with the Niyyat of Witr. Complete instructions regarding Namaz-e-Shab are given in the book of prayers.
774. All Nafilah prayers can be offered while sitting, but then, certain Fuqaha say that 2 Rak'ats prayed sitting should be counted as one Rak'at. For example, if a person wishes to offer Zuhr Nafilah which consists of 8 Rak'ats, in a sitting posture, he should offer 16 Rak'ats. And if he wishes to offer Witr prayers while sitting, he should offer two prayers of 1 Rak'at each. This later preference is not known from any sources; however, they may be followed with the hope of earning divine pleasure.
775. Zuhr Nafilah and Asr Nafilah should not be offered when one is on a journey, and one may offer Isha Nafilah with the intention of Raja'.
Rules of Namaz » The timings of daily Nafilah prayers
776. The Zuhr Nafilah is offered before Zuhr prayers. Its time is fromthe commencement of the time of Zuhr, up to the time when the shadow of indicatorequals 2/7th of its length. For example, if an indicator is 7 yards long, andthe shadow appearing after Zuhr reaches 2 yards, the Nafilah time would end.He should now offer Zuhr prayers.
777. The Asr Nafilah are offered before Asr prayers, and its time istill the moment when the shadow of an indicator appearing after Zuhr, reachesof 4/7th of its length. In case a person wishes to offer Zuhr and Asr Nafilah after their recommendedtime, he can offer the Zuhr Nafilah after Zuhr prayers, and the Asr Nafilahafter Asr prayers, but as a precaution, he will not make niyyat of Ada or Qadha.
778. The Maghrib Nafilah should be offered after Maghrib prayers, andone should make an effort to offer it in time after Maghrib. However, if onedelays offering Maghrib Nafilah till redness in the western sky disappears,then it would be better to offer Isha prayers at that moment.
779. The time for Isha Nafilah is from the completion of Isha prayerstill midnight. It is better to offer it immediately, after Isha prayers.
780. The Fajr Nafilah is offered before the Fajr prayers, and its timecommences when Namaz-e-Shab has been completed, till the time of Namaz-e-Fajrdraws near. But if someone delays it till redness is seen in the eastern sky,then it is better to pray namaz of Fajr.
781. The time for Namaz-e-Shab is from midnight till Adhan for Fajrprayers, and it is better to offer it nearer the time of Fajr prayers.
782. A traveller (i.e. one on a journey), and a person who finds itdifficult to offer Namaz-e-Shab after midnight, can offer it before midnight.
Rules of Namaz » Ghufayla prayers
783. Ghufayla prayers is one of the Mustahab prayers which is offered between Maghrib and Isha prayers. In its first Rak'at after Surah al-Hamd, instead of any other Surah, the following verses should be recited: Wa zannuni iz zahaba mughaziban fazanna an lan naqdira 'alayhi fanada fiz zulumati an la ilaha illa anta subhanaka inni kuntu minazzalimin fastajabna lahu wa najjaynahu minal ghammi wa kazalika nunjil mu'minin.
In the second Rak'at after Surah al-Hamd, instead of other Surah, the following verse should be recited: Wa 'indahu mafatihul ghaybi la ya'lamuha illa huwa wa ya'lamu ma fil barri wal bahri wa ma tasqutu min waraqatin illa ya'lamuha wa la habbatin fi zulumatil arz wa la ratbin wa la yabisin illa fi kitabim mubin. And in Qunut this Dua be recited: Alla humma inni as aluka bi mafatihli ghaybil lati la ya 'lamuha illa anta an tusalliya 'ala Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammad wa an taf'al bi........... (here one should mention his wishes).
Thereafter, the following Dua should be read: Alla humma anta waliyyu ni'mati wal qadiru 'ala talabati ta'lamu hajati fa as aluka bihaqqi Muhammadin wa Ali Muhammadin 'alayhi wa 'alay himussalamu lamma qazaaytaha li.
Rules of Namaz » Rules of Qibla
784. Our Qibla is the holy Ka'bah, which is situated in Makkah, and one should offer one's prayers facing it. However, a person who is far, would stand in such a manner that people would say that he is praying facing the Qibla, and that would suffice. This also applies to other acts which should be performed facing the Qibla like, while slaughtering an animal etc.
785. A person offering obligatory prayers while standing should have his chest and stomach facing the Qibla, and his face should not digress from Qibla, and the recommended precaution is that the toes of his feet should also be facing Qibla.
786. If a person offers prayers while sitting, it is necessary that his face, chest and stomach face the Qibla.
787. If a person cannot offer prayers in the sitting posture, he should lie on the right hand side in such a manner that the front part of the body would face the Qibla. And if that is not possible, he should lie on the left hand side in such a manner that the front part of his body would face the Qibla. And if even that is not possible, he should lie on his back in such a manner, that the sole of his feet face the Qibla.
788. Namaz-e-Ihtiyat, and forgotten Sajdah, and forgotten tashahhud should all be offered facing the Qibla, and on the basis of recommended precaution, Sajda-e-Sahv should also be offered facing the Qibla.
789. A Mustahab namaz can be offered while one is walking, or riding, and if a person offers Mustahab prayers in these two conditions, it is not necessary that he should be facing the Qibla.
790. A person who wishes to offer prayers, should make efforts to ascertain the direction of Qibla, and for that, he has to either be absolutely sure, or acquire such information as may amount to certainty, like testimony of two reliable persons. If that is not possible, he should form an idea from the Niche (Mehrab) of the Masjid or from the graves of the Muslims, or by other ways, and act accordingly. In fact, if a non-Muslim who can determine Qibla by scientific method, indicates Qibla satisfactorily, he can be relied upon.
791. If a person, who has a mere surmise about Qibla, and is in a position to have a better idea, he should not act on that guess work. For example, if a guest has an idea about the direction of Qibla on the statement of the owner of the house, but feels that he can acquire a firmer knowledge about Qibla by some means, he should not act on his host's words.
792. If a person does not possess any means of determining the direction of Qibla, or in spite of his efforts, he cannot form an idea about it, it will be sufficient for him to offer his prayers facing any direction. And the recommended precaution is that, if he has sufficient time at his disposal, he should offer the same prayers 4 times, each time facing every one of the four directions.
793. If a person is sure or guesses that Qibla is on one of the two directions, he should offer prayers facing both.
794. If a person has to offer prayers facing a few direction, and wants to offer two prayers like Zuhr prayers and Asr prayers, which should be offered one after the other, the recommended precaution is that he should offer the first namaz facing those few directions, and then commence the second prayers.
795. If a person who is not certain about the direction of Qibla, wishes to perform acts other than namaz, which should be done facing the Qibla like, slaughtering an animal, he should act according to his surmise about the direction of Qibla , and if that does not seem possible, then performing the act facing any direction will be valid.
Rules of Namaz » Covering the body in prayers
796. While offering prayers, a man should cover his private parts even if no one is looking at him, and preference is that he should also cover his body from the navel up to the knee.
797. A woman should cover her entire body while offering prayers, including her head and hair. As a recommended precaution, she should also cover the soles of her feet. It is not necessary for her to cover that part of her face which is washed while performing Wudhu, or the hands up to the wrists, or the upper feet up to the ankles. Nevertheless, in order to ensure that she has covered the obligatory parts of her body adequately, she should also cover a part of the sides of her face as well as lower part of her wrists and the ankles.
798. When a person offers the forgotten Sajdah or tashahhud, he should cover himself in the same manner as in prayers, and the recommended precaution is that he should also cover himself at the time of offering Sajda-e-Sahv.
799. If while offering prayers, a person does not cover his private parts intentionally, or on account of not having cared to know the rule, his prayers is void.
800. If a person realises while offering prayers, that his private parts are visible, he must immediately cover them, and it is not necessary for him to repeat the prayers. As a measure of precaution, he should not continue performing any part of the prayers, as long as the private parts are visible. If he learns after the completion of prayers that his private parts were visible, his prayers would be deemed valid.
801. If the dress of a person covers his private parts while he stands, but it may not cover them in another posture like in Ruku or Sajdah, his namaz will be valid if he manages to conceal them by some other means. However, the recommended precaution is that he should not pray in such dress.
802. One is allowed to cover oneself at the time of offering prayers with grass, and the leaves of the trees, but as a recommended precaution, these should be used only when no alternative is available.
803. In a state of helplessness, when one has nothing to cover one's private parts, one may, while offering prayers, use mud to conceal one's private parts.
804. If a person does not have anything with which to cover himself while offering prayers, but has a hope that he may get some cover, then it is better to delay offering the prayers. However, if he does not get anything, he should offer prayers discharging his obligation at the end bit of the time. And if he prayed in the prime time, and his excuse did not continue till the end, then as an obligatory precaution, he should pray again.
805. If a person who intends offering prayers does not have anything, not even leaves, or grass, or mud to cover himself, and if he has no hope of acquiring any of them, if there are no people looking, he should pray normally, performing Ruku and sajdah etc. as usual. And if there are people watching, then he should pray in such a way that his private parts remain hidden from the view, by praying while sitting, and performing Ruku and Sajdah by signs. As an obligatory precaution in namaz, an unclothed person should cover his private parts with the parts of his own body, say, while sitting with the thighs, and while standing with his hands.
Rules of Namaz » Conditions for dress worn during prayers
806. There are six conditions for the dress used in namaz:
It should be Pak.
It should be mubah (permissible for him to use).
It should not be made of the parts of a dead body.
It should not be made of the carcass, whose meat is haraam.
If a person who offers prayers is a male, his dress must not be made of pure silk.
If a person who offers prayers is a male, his dress must not be embroidered with gold. The details of these will follow later.
807. The dress of a person who offers prayers should be Pak. Therefore, if he prays with najis body, or dress, in normal situations, his prayers would be void.
808. If a person did not care to know that namaz offered with najis body or dress is void, and he prayed in that state, his prayers is void.
809. If a person did not care to learn the rule that a particular thing is najis, like, if he does not know that the sweat of a Kafir is najis, and he prayed with it, his prayer is void.
810. If, a person was sure that his body or dress was not najis, and came to know after namaz, that either of them was najis, the prayers are in order.
811. If a person forgets that his body or dress is najis, and remembers during namaz, or after completing namaz, as an obligatory precaution, he should offer the prayers again, if his forgetting was due to carelessness. And if the time has lapsed, he should give its Qadha. If it was not due to carelessness, it is not necessary to pray again, except when he remembers during namaz, in which circumstances, he will act as explained below.
812. If a person has ample time at his disposal while offering prayers, and he realises during the prayers that his clothes are najis, and suspects that they may have been najis before he started the prayers, he should wash it, or change it, or take if off, provided that in so doing, his namaz does not become invalidated, and continue with the namaz to its completion. But if he has no other dress to cover his private parts, or washing the dress, or taking it off may invalidate his namaz, he should, as an obligatory precaution, repeat his namaz with Pak clothes.
813. When a person is praying, and the time at his disposal is short, and during the prayers he realises that his clothes are najis, and suspects that they may have been najis before he started the prayers, he should wash it, change, it or take it off provided that in so doing his namaz is not invalidated, and complete the namaz. But if he has no other clothes which would cover his private parts if he took off the dress, nor can he wash or change it, he should complete his namaz with the same najis dress.
814. When a person is praying, and the time at his disposal is short, and during the prayers he realises that his body has become najis, suspecting that it may have been so before he started the prayers, he should wash that najasat off his body, if in so doing his namaz is not invalidated. But if it invalidates, then he should complete his namaz in the same state, and his namaz will be valid.
815. If a person doubts whether his body or dress is Pak, and if he did not find anything najis after investigation, and prayed, his namaz will be valid even if he learns after namaz that his body or dress was actually najis. But if he did not care to investigate, then as an obligatory precaution, he will repeat the prayers. If the time has lapsed, he will give its Qadha.
816. If a person washes his dress, and becomes sure that it has become Pak, and offers prayers with it, but learns after the prayers that it had not become Pak, his prayers are in order.
817. If a person sees blood on his body or dress, and is certain that it is not one of the najis bloods, like, if he is sure that it is the blood of a mosquito, and if after offering the prayers, he learns that it was one of those bloods with which prayers cannot be offered, his prayers are in order.
818. If a person is sure that the blood which is on his body or dress, is a type of najis blood which is allowed in namaz, like, the blood from wound or a sore, but comes to know after having offered his prayers, that it is the blood which makes prayers void, his prayers will be in order.
819. If a person forgets that a particular thing is najis, and his wet body or dress touches that thing, and then he offers prayers forgetfully, recollecting after the prayers, his prayer is in order. In such situation, if he does Ghusl without first making his body Pak, and then proceeds to pray, both his Ghusl and namaz will be void, unless he is sure that in the process of doing Ghusl, his body also became Pak. Similarly, if any part of Wudhu is washed without first making it Pak, and prayers are offered, both Wudhu and the prayers will be void, unless he is sure that in the process of Wudhu, that part, which he had forgotten to be najis, had become Pak.
820. If a person possesses only one dress, and if his body and dress both are najis, and if the water in his possession is just enough to make one of them Pak, the obligatory precaution is to make the body Pak, and offer prayers with the najis dress. It is not permissible to wash the dress, and pray with najis body. However, if the najasat of the dress is more, or intense, then he has an option to make either of them Pak.
821. A person who does not have any dress other than a najis one, should offer prayers with that najis dress, and his prayers will be in order.
822. If a person has two sets of dresses, and knows that one of them is najis, but does not know which, and has sufficient time at his disposal, he should offer prayers with each one of them. For example, if he wishes to offer Zuhr and Asr prayers, he should offer one Zuhr prayer and one Asr prayer with each set. However, if the time at his disposal is short, he may offer the prayers with either of them, and it will be sufficient.
823. The dress which a person uses for offering prayers should be Mubah. Hence, if a person knows that it is haraam to use an usurped dress, or does not know the rule on account of negligence, and intentionally offers prayers with the usurped dress, as a precaution, his prayers would be void. But if his dress includes such usurped things which alone cannot cover the private parts, or even if they can cover the private parts, he is not actually wearing them at that time (for example, a big handkerchief which is in his pocket) or if he is wearing the usurped things together with a Mubah covering, in all these cases, the fact that such extra things are usurped would not affect the validity of the prayers; although, as a precautionary measure, their use should be avoided.
824. If a person knows that it is haraam to wear usurped dress, but does not know that it makes prayers void, and if he intentionally offers prayers with usurped dress, as a precaution, his prayers will be void, as explained in the foregoing article.
825. If a person does not know that his dress is usurped, or forgets about it being usurped, and offers prayers with it, his prayers is in order, provided that he himself is not the usurper. If he himself is the usurper, his namaz, as a precaution, will be void.
826. If a person does not know or forgets that his dress is a usurped one, and realises it during prayers, he should take off that dress, provided that his private parts are covered by another thing, and he can take off the usurped dress immediately without the continuity of the prayers being broken. And if his private parts are not covered by something else, or he cannot take off the usurped dress immediately, or the continuity of the prayers is not maintained if he takes if off, and if he has time for at least one Rak'at, he should break the prayers and offer prayers with a dress which has not been usurped. But if he does not have so much time, he should take off the dress while praying, and complete the prayers according to the rules applicable to the prayers by the naked.
827. If a person offers prayers with a usurped dress to safeguard his life or, for example, to save the dress from being stolen by a thief, his prayers are in order.
828. If a person purchases a dress with the particular sum of money whose khums has not been paid by him, then namaz in that dress will amount to the namaz in a dress which has been usurped.
829. The dress of the person, including those which alone would not cover the private parts, as an obligatory precaution, should not be made of the parts of the dead body of an animal whose blood gushes when killed. And the recommended precaution is that even if the dress is made of the parts of the dead body of an animal whose blood does not gush (for example, fish or snake), it should not be used while offering prayers.
830. If the person, who offers prayers, carries with him parts from a najis carcass, which are counted as living parts, like, its flesh and skin - the prayers will be in order.
831. If a person who offers prayers has with him parts from a carcass, whose meat is halal, and which is not counted as a living part, e.g. its hair and wool, or if he offers prayers with a dress which has been made from such things, his prayers are in order.
832. The dress of one who is praying, apart from the small clothes like socks which would not ordinarily serve to cover the private parts, should not be made of any part of the body of a wild animal, nor, as an obligatory precaution, of any animal whose meat is haraam. Similarly, his dress should not be soiled with the urine, excretion, sweat, milk or hair of such animals. However, if there is one isolated hair on the dress, or if he carries with him, say, a box in which any such things have been kept, there is no harm.
833. If the saliva, or water from the nose, or any other moisture, from an animal whose meat is haraam to eat, like that of a cat, is on the body or the dress of a person in namaz, and if it is wet, the namaz will be void. But if it has dried up, and if its substance has been removed, then the prayer is valid.
834. If hair and sweat and saliva of another person is on the body, or the dress of a person offering prayers, there is no harm in it. Similarly, there is no harm if animal products, like wax, honey or pearls are with him while he prays.
835. If the person offering prayers, doubts whether his dress is made of the parts of an animal whose meat is halal, or with the parts of the animal whose meat is haraam, he is allowed to offer prayers with it, irrespective of whether it has been made locally or imported.
836. It is not known whether a pearl oyster is one of the parts of an animal whose meat is haraam, therefore it is permissible to offer prayers with it.
837. There is no harm in wearing pure fur, and similarly the fur of a grey squirrel, while offering prayers. However, recommended precaution is that one should not offer prayers with the hide of a squirrel.
838. If a person prayed with a dress about which he did not know that it was made of the parts of an animal whose meat is haraam, or if he forgot about it, he should, as a recommended precaution, pray again.
839. The use of a dress embroidered with gold is haraam for men, and to pray in a such a dress will make namaz void. But for women its use, whether in prayers or otherwise, is allowed.
840. It is haraam for men to wear gold, like hanging a golden chain on one's chest, or wearing a gold ring, or to use a wrist watch or spectacles made of gold, and the prayers offered wearing these things will be void. But women are allowed to wear these things in prayers or otherwise.
841. If a person did not know, or forgot that his ring or dress was made of gold, or had a doubt about it, his prayers will be valid if he prayed wearing them.
842. In namaz, the dress of a man, even his small scalp cap, or the laces for fastening the pyjama, or trousers, should not be made of pure silk. The latter two are as a measure of recommended precaution. However, for men it is haraam to wear pure silk at any time.
843. If the entire lining of a dress or a part of it is made of pure silk, wearing it is haraam for a man, and offering prayers with it will make it void.
844. If a man does not know whether a particular dress is made of pure silk, or of something else, it is permissible for him to wear it, and there is also no harm in offering prayers wearing it.
845. There is no harm if a silken handkerchief, or anything similar is in the pocket of a man, it does not invalidate the prayers.
846. A woman is allowed to wear silken dress in namaz, and at all other times.
847. When one is helpless, having no alternative, one can wear usurped dress, or dress made of gold fabrics, or of silk. Similarly, if a person is obliged to wear a dress, and has no other dress but one of those mentioned, he can offer prayers with such dresses.
848. If a person does not have any dress but the usurped one, and if he is not forced to put on that dress, he should pray according to rules prescribed for the one who has to offer namaz unclothed.
849. If a person does not have a dress, except the one made of the parts of the wild animal, and if he is obliged to put on that dress, he is allowed to pray with that dress. But if it is not necessary for him to put on a dress, he should act accordingly to the rules for the unclothed. But if the dress available is not from a wild beast, but from the parts of an animal whose meat is haraam, and if he is not in anyway obliged to wear it, then, as an obligatory precaution, he should pray twice; once with that dress, and again according to the rules applicable to unclothed person.
850. If a person does not have a dress other than a dress which is made of pure silk or is woven with gold, and if he is not obliged to wear any dress, he should offer prayers in accordance with the rules applicable to the unclothed.
851. If a person does not have anything with which he may cover his private parts in namaz, it is obligatory on him to procure such a thing on hire, or to purchase it. However, if it is going to cost him more than he can afford, or, if he spends for the clothes, it would cause him some harm, he can offer namaz according to the rules prescribed for the unclothed person.
852. If a person does not have a dress, and another person presents or lends him a dress, he should accept it, if the acceptance will not cause any hardship to him. In fact, if it is not difficult for him to borrow, or to seek a gift, he should do so, from the one who may be able to give.
853. Wearing a dress whose cloth, colour, or stitch, is not befitting to the status of a person, or is unusual for him, is haraam if it is undignified or humiliating. But if he offers namaz with such a dress, even if it is only enough to cover his private parts, his prayers will be valid.
854. If a man wears the dress of a woman, or a woman wears the dress of a man, adopting it as a usual garb, as a precaution, this is haraam. But praying in that dress, in any situation, will not invalidate namaz.
855. For a person who has to pray while lying down, it is not permissible in namaz to use a blanket or a quilt made of the parts of a wild beast, or, as an obligatory precaution, an animal whose meat is haraam, or of silk, or if it is najis, if he wraps it around in such a way that it can be seen as worn. But if he only draws it upon himself, there will be no harm, and his namaz will not be affected. As for the mattress, there is no objection at all, except when he wraps a part of it around his body, making it to look like wearing. If he does so, then the same rule as that of quilt will apply.
856. In the following three cases, the prayers offered by a person will be valid, even if his body or dress be najis:
If his body or dress is stained with the blood discharged from a wound or a sore on his body.
If his body or dress is stained with blood, spread over a space lesser than a dirham (which is almost equal to the upper joint of the thumb).
If he has no alternative but to offer prayers with najis body or dress. Further, there is one situation in which, if the dress of one who prays is najis, the namaz will be valid. And that is, when small clothes like socks, scalp caps are najis. Rules of these four situations will be explained in details later.
857. If the body or the dress of a person wishing to pray is stained with blood from wound or sore etc, he can pray namaz with that blood as long as the wound or the sore has not healed up. And the same applies to pus, which may flow out with blood, or any medicine which became najis, when applied to the wound or the sore.
858. If blood on the dress or the body of a person who is praying, originates from a small cut or wound which can be healed easily, and which can be washed clean, then his namaz is void.
859. If any part of the body, or the dress, which is away from the wound, becomes najis owing to the fluid which oozes out from the wound, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it. However, if a part of the body or dress around the wound becomes najis, owing to suppuration, there is no harm in offering prayers with it.
860. If the body or dress of a person is stained with blood from internal piles, or from a wound which is within one's mouth, nose etc., he can offer prayers with that blood. But if the blood is from external piles, then it is obviously permissible to offer prayers with it.
861. If a person has a wound on his body and he sees blood on his body or dress which is bigger than the area of a dirham and does not know whether it is from his wound or some other blood, as an obligatory precaution, he should not pray with it.
862. If a person has several wounds, but they are so near one another that they may be treated as one, there is no harm in offering prayers with their blood, as long as they have not healed. However, if they are separate, each one as an independent wound, he should wash and make Pak body and dress, each time when a wound is healed up.
863. If the clothes or the body of a person praying, is stained with the blood of Hayz, however little, the namaz will be void. And as a precaution, the same rule applies to the blood of Nifas, Istihaza and the blood from sources which are essentially najis, like a pig, a carcass, or an animal whose meat is haraam. As regards other bloods, like the blood from a human body, or from an animal whose meat is halal, there is no harm in offering prayers with them, even if they are found at several places on the dress or the body, provided that, when added together, their area is less than that of a dirham.
864. If blood stains one side of the dress, and then seeps through to the other side, it will be considered as one. However, if the other side of the dress gets smeared with blood separately, each one will be considered as a separate blood. Therefore, if blood on both sides is less than a dirham in area when put together, namaz will be valid with them. But if it exceeds the area, then namaz will be void.
865. If blood falls on a dress which has a lining, and reaches it, or falls on its lining and reaches the upper part of the dress, each of them will be considered separate blood, unless they are so joined together, that it would be customarily be considered as one blood. Hence if the area of the blood of the dress and that of the lining, when added together, are less than the area of a dirham, the prayers offered with them will be in order, and if they are more, the prayers offered with that blood will be void.
866. If the area of the blood on one's body or dress is less than that of a dirham, and some moisture reaches it and spreads over its sides, the prayers offered with that blood is void, even if the blood and the moisture which has spread there, is not equal to the area of a dirham. However, if the moisture reaches the blood only, without wetting its edges, then there is no objection in offering prayers with it.
867. If there is no blood on the body or dress of a person, but it becomes najis because of contact with some moisture mixed with blood, prayers cannot be offered with it, even if the part which has become najis is less than the area of a dirham.
868. If the area of the blood present on the body or dress of a person is less than that of a dirham, but another najasat reaches it, like when a drop of urine falls on it, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it, regardless of whether this extraneous najasat reaches the body or the dress or not.
869. If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts, become najis, and if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose meat is haraam to eat, the prayers offered with them will be in order. And there is also no objection if one offers prayers with a najis ring.
870. It is permissible for a person in namaz to carry with him najis things, like najis handkerchief, key and knife. Similarly, if he has a separate najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his prayers.
871. If a person knows that the area of the blood stain on his body or dress is less than that of a dirham, but suspects that it may be one of those blood (e.g. Hayz, Nifas, Istihaza) which are not excused in namaz, he is permitted to offer prayers with that blood, and it will not be necessary to wash it off.
872. If the area of blood stains on the dress, or body of a person, is less than that of a dirham , but he is not aware that it is one which is not excused in the prayers, and learns later after Namaz, that it was the blood which are not excused, it is not necessary for him to offer the prayers again. Similarly, if he believes that the span of the blood is less than that of a dirham and offers prayers, then comes to know later, that it was equal to or more than the area of a dirham, it is not necessary to offer the prayers again.
873. A number of things are Mustahab for the dress of a person who offers prayers. Some of these are: Turban, along with its final fold passed under the chin; loose garment on the shoulder ('Aba); white dress; and cleanest dress; use of perfume, and wearing an Aqeeq (Agate).
Certain Items are Makrooh for the Dress of One who Prays:
874. To wear a black, a dirty, or a tight dress, or to put on a dress of a person who is a drunkard, or of one who is careless about najasat. Similarly, to wear a dress which has images printed or drawn on it, to keep the buttons open, to wear a ring which has images engraved on it.
Rules of Namaz » Place where Namaz should be prayed
There are seven conditions for the place where one should offer prayers:
875. The first condition: The place where the prayers are offered should be Mubah. If a person prays on a usurped property, then as an obligatory precaution, his prayers are void, even it he prays on a carpet, or a couch, or similarly objects. However, there is no harm in offering prayers under a usurped roof or a usurped tent.
876. Prayers offered in a property whose use and benefit belongs to someone else, will be void, unless permission is taken from the entitled person. For example, if a house has been rented out, and the owner of the house, or anyone else offers prayers in that house without permission of the tenant, then as a measure of precaution, his prayers are void. And if a person made a will before his death that one-third of his estate should be used for a particular cause, prayers cannot be offered in that property until that one-third has been dispensed with.
877. If a person sitting in a mosque, is made to quit his place by someone who then occupies his place, the prayers offered there will be valid, though he will have committed a sin.
878. If a person does not know, or forgets that a place is a usurped one, and offers prayers on it, and learns or remembers it after offering prayers, his prayers are in order. However, if a person usurped a place himself but forgets it, and offers prayer there, his prayers are void.
879. If a person knows that a certain place is usurped, but does not know the rule that prayers at a usurped place are void, and offers prayers there, his prayers are void.
880. If a person is obliged to offer obligatory prayers while riding, and if the animal of his riding, or its saddle, or stirrups are usurped ones, his prayers are void. And the same rule applies if he wishes to offer Mustahab prayers while riding that animal.
881. If a person owns a property in partnership with another person, and his share is not defined, he cannot use that property to offer prayers without the consent of his partner.
882. If a person purchases a property with the sum of money from which Khums has not been paid by him, his use of that property is haraam, and the prayers which he offers in it are void.
883. If the owner gives a verbal consent for offering prayers in his property, but it is known that he is not happy about it at heart, then offering prayers in his property is void. Conversely, if he does not give verbal permission but it is known with certainty that he is happy about it, then offering prayers in his property will be in order.
884. Use of a property which belongs to a dead person, who has not paid Zakat or other similar dues, is allowed, provided that such a use does not in any way prevent from obligations. A person wishing to pray in such property can do so, with the permission of the heirs. Similarly, there will be no objection, if the debt is paid up, or guaranteed for payment.
885. The rule for the use of a property belonging to a dead person who is indebted to people, is the same as above mentioned rule, pertaining to Zakat and other similar dues.
886. If a dead person did not owe anyone, but some of his heirs are either minor, or insane, or absent, then use of that property without permission of the guardian of those heirs, is haraam, and it is not permissible to offer prayers in it.
887. To pray in someone else's property is permissible only when the owner has given an explicit consent, or has made a hint implying permission. For example, if he permits a person to stay and sleep in his property, it will be implied that he has given him permission for offering prayers as well.
888. It is permissible to pray on a vast expanse of land, even if its owner is a minor, insane, or unhappy about praying on it. This also applies to lands which have no gates or walls over them. No permission will be required from its owner, except if it is known that the owner is minor, insane, or displeased about anyone praying there. In such a case, as an obligatory precaution, prayers should not be offered there.
889. The second condition: The place for prayers should not have such a vigorous movement which would make normal standing, Ruku or Sajdah impossible. In fact, as an obligatory precaution, it should not prevent the body from being at ease. But if one is forced to pray at such places, due to shortage of time, or any other reason, like in a car, on a ship or on train, then one should try to remain still, and to maintain the direction of Qibla, as much as possible. And if the vehicles move away from the direction, he should return to Qibla.
890. There is no harm in offering prayers in a car or a boat, or on railway train or other vehicles, while they are motionless. And if they do not cause excessive swaying to the body, when they are in motion, one can pray in them.
891. Prayers offered on a heap of wheat, or barley, or any other similar thing, which cannot remain steady, is void.
The third condition: A person should offer prayers at a place where he sees the possibility of completing the prayers. To pray at a place where one cannot complete the prayers, because of strong winds, or heavy rains or a teeming crowd, will render namaz void, even if one somehow manages to finish the prayers.
892. If a person offers prayers at a place where it is forbidden to stay, like, under a roof which is about to collapse, his prayers are in order, though he will have committed a sin.
893. To pray on an object upon which it is haraam to step, or sit, like a carpet upon which the name of Allah is drawn or written, will render prayers void, if the action is meant to displease Allah.
The fourth condition: The ceiling of the place where one prays should not be so low, that one may not be able to stand erect, nor should the place be so small, that there may be no room for performing Ruku or Sajdah.
894. If a person is forced to offer prayers at a place where it is not at all possible to stand, he will pray while sitting. And if it is not possible to perform Ruku and Sajdah, he should perform them by head signs.
895. One should not offer prayers in front of the graves of the holy Prophet, and the holy Imams, if it entails irreverence, otherwise there is no harm in it.
The fifth condition: If the place where one wishes to pray is najis, it should not be so wet that its moisture would reach the body or the dress of the person praying. But, if the place where one places one's forehead while performing Sajdah, is najis, the prayers will be void, even if that place is dry. And the recommended precaution is that the place where one offers prayers should not be najis at all.
The sixth condition: As an obligatory precaution, women should stand behind men while praying. At least, her place of Sajdah should be in line with his thighs, when in Sajdah.
896. If a woman stands in line with man, or in front of him in namaz, and both of them begin together, they should repeat their prayers. And the same applies if one of them starts earlier than the other.
897. If a man and a woman are standing side by side in namaz, or woman is in front, but there is a wall, curtain, or something else separating them, so that they cannot see each other, the prayers of both of them are in order. Similarly, the prayers of both will be valid if the distance between them is ten arms.
The seventh condition: The place where a person places his forehead while in Sajdah, should not be higher or lower than a span of four fingers, when compared to the place of thighs or toes of his feet. The details of this rule will be given in the rules relating to Sajdah.
898. For a Na-Mahram man and woman to be at a place, where there is a possibility of falling into sin is haraam. As a recommended precaution, one must avoid praying at such places.
899. Prayers at a place where musical instrument etc. is being played, is not void, but hearing or performing it is a sin.
900. The obligatory precaution is that in normal situation, obligatory prayers should not be offered in the Ka'ba, and on the roof of the Holy Ka'ba, but there will be no harm if one is forced to do so.
901. There is no harm in offering Mustahab prayers in the Holy Ka'ba, or on its roof. In fact, it is Mustahab to offer two Rak'ats before every pillar within the Holy House.
Rules of Namaz » Mustahab places for offering prayers
902. In Islam, great emphasis is laid on offering prayers in a mosque. Masjidul Haram is superior to all the mosques, and after it, the order of priority is as follows:
Masjidun Nabi (in Madina)
Masjid Kufa (in Kufa)
Masjid Baytul Maqdas (in Jerusalem)
Then comes the number of Jami' Masjid (central mosque) of every city, followed by the mosques situated in one's locality, and then that of the bazaar.
903. For women, it is better to pray at such places where they are best protected from Na Mahram, regardless of whether that place is her home, a mosque or anywhere else.
904. Namaz in the Shrines of the holy Imams is Mustahab, and is even better than offering prayers in a mosque. It has been reported that the reward for offering prayers in the sacred Shrine of Amirul Mu'minin Imam Ali (p.b.u.h.), is equal to 200,000 prayers.
905. Frequenting a mosque, and going to a mosque which is visited by very few people, is Mustahab. And it is Makrooh for a neighbour of the mosque to pray anywhere other than a mosque, unless he has a justifiable excuse.
906. It is Mustahab that one should not sit to eat with a person who does not attend prayers in a mosque, should not seek his advice, should not be his neighbour, and should not enter into matrimonial bond with his family.
Rules of Namaz » Places where offering prayers is Makrooh
907. There are a number of places where it is Makrooh to offer prayers. Some of them are the following:
Facing a human person
Facing an open door
On a road or street, provided that offering of prayers at these places does not cause inconvenience to others. If it is a source of inconvenience, and discomfort to them, it is haraam to obstruct their way.
Facing fire or a lamp
In the kitchens, and at every place where there is a furnace
Facing a well or a pit where people often urinate
Facing the picture or models of living creatures, unless it is covered
In the room where a Mujnib is present
At a place where there is a picture, even if it may not be placed in front of the person who offers prayers
Facing a grave
On the grave
Between two graves
In the graveyard
908. If a person is offering prayers at a place where people are passing, or where somebody is present in front of him, it is Mustahab that he should set a demarcation before him, even by keeping a wooden stick, or a string.
Rules of Namaz » Rules regarding a Mosque
909. It is haraam to make the floor, roof, ceiling and inner walls of a masjid najis, and as and when a person comes to know that any of these parts has become najis, he should immediately make it Pak. And the recommended precaution is that the outer part of the wall of a mosque, too, should not be made najis. And if it becomes najis, it is not obligatory to remove the najasat. But if someone makes it najis to violate its sanctity, that act is haraam, and the najasat should be removed.
910. If a person cannot make a mosque Pak, or needs help which is not available, then it is not obligatory for him to make it Pak. But if he feels that the mosque will be made Pak if he informs others, then he should do so.
911. If a place in a mosque becomes najis, and it cannot be made Pak without digging or demolishing it, the place should be dug or demolished, provided that it is minimal, or if its demolition is absolutely necessary for saving its sanctity. Otherwise, demolition is a matter of Ishkal. However, it is not obligatory to refill the dug area, or to rebuild the demolished part. But if a small item, like a brick of a mosque became najis, it should be put back to its place after making it Pak.
912. If a mosque is usurped, and houses etc. are built in its place, or if it becomes so dilapidated that it can no more be called a mosque, even then, as a recommended precaution, it should not be made najis. But if it becomes najis, it is not obligatory to make it Pak.
913. It is haraam to make the precincts (Haram) of the Holy Shrines najis, but if anyone of these precincts become najis, and if its remaining in that state affects its sanctity, then it is obligatory to make it Pak. And the recommended precaution is that it should be made Pak, even if no desecration is involved.
914. If the mat of a masjid becomes najis, it should be made Pak. If the mat remaining najis affects the sanctity of the mosque, but washing may spoil or ruin the mat, then that part which has become najis should be cut off.
915. It is haraam to carry any Najisul Ayn or a thing which has become najis, into a mosque, if doing so desecrates the mosque. In fact, the recommended precaution is that even if desecration of the mosque is not involved, Najisul Ayn should not be carried into it.
916. If a mosque is draped with black cloth, or covered with a marquee in preparation of Majlis to be read there, and tea is prepared, there will be no objection to all that if they do not have any harmful effect on the mosque, and if it does not obstruct those who come to pray.
917. The obligatory precaution is that a mosque should not be adorned with gold, and the recommended precaution is, that it should not be adorned with the pictures of men and animals.
918. Even when a mosque is ruined, it is not permissible to sell it, or to make it a part of a property, or a road.
919. It is haraam to sell doors, windows, and other things of a mosque, and if the mosque becomes dilapidated, those things should be used for the renovation of the same mosque. If they are not useful for that mosque they should be used in any other mosque, and if they are not of any use for other mosques also, then they may be sold, and the proceeds should be used for that very mosque, if possible. If that is not possible, then it should be spent on the repairs of any other mosque.
920. Building a mosque and renovating a dilapidated mosque is Mustahab. And if a mosque is so ruined, that it is not possible to repair it, then it can be demolished and rebuilt. In fact, a mosque which may not be in a bad state can be demolished for extension, to facilitate the needs of the people.
921. To keep a mosque clean and tidy, and to illuminate it, is Mustahab. And for a person visiting a mosque, it is Mustahab to apply perfume, and wear neat and good dress and to ensure that the soles of his shoes do not contain any najasat, and when entering the mosque, to put his right foot in first, and on exit, to put his left foot out first. Similarly, it is Mustahab that one should come to the mosque earlier than others, and leave it after they have departed.
922. It is Mustahab that when a person enters a mosque, he should offer two Rak'at prayers as gesture of greeting and respect to the mosque, but it will suffice if he offers any obligatory or Mustahab prayers.
923. It is Makrooh to sleep in a mosque, except when helpless, and to talk about worldly affairs, to engage oneself in some craft, and to recite poetry, which is not religiously instructive. It is also Makrooh to spit or throw phlegm or mucus from the nose, in a mosque, or to shout or raise one's voice, except for Adhan.
924. It is Makrooh to allow an insane person to enter a mosque, and also a child if it causes inconvenience to the people praying, or if it is feared that it might make the mosque najis. In absence of these two reasons, there is no harm in allowing the children. Similarly, for people who have eaten onions, garlic etc. and their bad breath may upset others, it is Makrooh to go to the mosque.
Rules of Namaz » Adhan and Iqamah
925. It is Mustahab for man and woman to say Adhan and Iqamah before offering daily obligatory prayers, but for other Mustahab or obligatory prayers, they are not prescribed. But before prayers of Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha, it is Mustahab to say "As-Salah" three times, provided that the prayers are going to be offered in congregation.
926. It is recommended that Adhan be pronounced in the right ear of the child, and Iqamah in its left ear, on the day it is born or before the umbilical cord is cast off.
927. Adhan consists of the following 18 sentences:
Allahu Akbar - four times
(Allah is greater than any description)
Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lah - two times
(I testify that there is no god but Allah)
Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasu lul lah - two times
(I testify that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger)
Hayya'alas Salah - two times
(Hasten to prayers)
Hayya'alal Falah - two times
(Hasten to deliverance)
Hayya'ala Khayril 'Amal - two times
(Hasten to the best act)
Allahu Akbar - two times
(Allah is greater than any description)
La ilaha illal lah - two times
(There is no god but Allah)
As regard to Iqamah, it consists of 17 sentences. In Iqamah, Allahu Akbar is reduced in the beginning to twice, and at the end, La ilaha illal lah to once, and after Hayya 'ala Khayril 'Amal, Qadqa matis Salah (i.e. the prayers has certainly been established) must be added two times.
928. Ash hadu anna Amiral Mu'minina 'Aliyyan Waliyyullah ( I testify that the Commander of the faithful, Imam Ali (AS) is the vicegerent of Allah) is not a part of either Adhan or Iqamah. But it is preferable that it is pronounced after Ash hadu anna Muhammadan Rasulul lah with the niyyat of Qurbat.
929. There should not be an unusual interval between the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah, and if an unusual gap is allowed between them, the Adhan or Iqamah will have to be repeated.
930. If Adhan and Iqamah are recited in a melodious tune, rendering it musical, that is, like the way singers sing to entertain the people, it is haraam. If it it does not become musical, it is Makrooh.
931. Whenever a person offers two prayers together, one after the other, he will not say Adhan for the second prayers if he has said it for the first, irrespective of whether it was better in that case to pray together or not, like on the day of Arafah (9th Dhul Hijjah) for Zuhr and Asr prayers, or the night of Eid ul Adha for Maghrib and Isha at Mash'ar. But the Adhan does not become necessary, only if there is no prolonged gap between the two prayers. A small time lapse between two prayers, caused by Duas or Nafilah, will not be taken as a prolonged gap. And if one gives Adhan, as per obligatory precaution, one should not make the niyyat of it being prescribed by Shariah, especially in the last two cases of Arafah and Mash'ar.
932. If Adhan and Iqamah has been pronounced for congregational prayers, a person joining that congregation should not pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, for his own prayers.
933. If a person entering a mosque finds that congregational prayers are over, he may not give Adhan or Iqamah for his own prayers, as long as the lines have not broken up, and the people have not dispersed. This means it is not an emphasised Mustahab act for him. If he intends to give Adhan or Iqamah anyway, then it should be with very low voices. If he is joining another prayers with congregation, he should not give Adhan or Iqamah.
934. At a place where congregational prayers have just ended, and the lines have not yet broken up, if a person wants to begin his prayers individually, or with another congregation, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah on six conditions:
If prayers are offered in a mosque. If it is not offered in a mosque, the exemption from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah is not established.
If Adhan and Iqamah has already been recited for the preceding prayers.
If the congregational prayers offered is not void.
When the prayers of the person concerned, and the congregational prayers are offered at one and the same place. If the congregational prayers are offered within the mosque, and he wants to offer prayers on its roof, it is Mustahab that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah.
When the congregational prayers have been offered within prescribed time (Ada'). His own prayers which he wishes to offer may not necessarily be within time.
When both, his prayers and the congregational prayers, are for common time. For example, both of them should be offering Zuhr prayers or Asr prayers. The same is applicable if he prays Zuhr while the congregation prays Asr or vice versa. But if his praying Maghrib in its prime time, with a congregation which is offering Asr at its lapsed time, Adhan and Iqamah will not be exempted.
935. If a person doubts about the third condition out of the six conditions mentioned above, that is, if he doubts whether or not the congregational prayers are void, he is exempted from pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah. But if he doubts about any one of the remaining conditions, it is better that he should pronounce Adhan and Iqamah, with the niyyat of Raja' (a hope that he may be doing a worthy deed).
936. It is Mustahab that when a person hears Adhan, he follows by uttering together in a low voice whatever he hears.
937. If a person hears another person pronouncing Adhan and Iqamah, regardless of whether he has repeated with him the same or not, he may not say Adhan and Iqamah for his own namaz, if there is no delay or time gap between them and his namaz.
938. If a man listens to the Adhan pronounced by a woman with lustful amusement, he will not be exempted from pronouncing Adhan. In fact, even if intention is not lustful, the exemption is a matter of Ishkal.
939. It is necessary that the Adhan and Iqamah of a congregational prayers are pronounced by a man. However, if a woman pronounces Adhan and Iqamah in a congregational prayers of women, it is sufficient.
940. Iqamah should be pronounced after Adhan. Moreover, Iqamah should be pronounced in a standing position, and with Wudhu, Ghusl or tayammum.
941. If a person pronounces the sentences of Adhan or Iqamah without proper order, like if he says 'Hayya 'alal falah' before 'Hayya alas Salah; he should repeat from the place where the order has been disturbed.
942. An inordinate lapse of time should not be allowed between Adhan and Iqamah, and if an excessive gap is allowed between them, it is Mustahab that Adhan be pronounced once again. Similarly, if an excessive time gap is allowed between Adhan, Iqamah, and the prayers, it is Mustahab to repeat them for that prayers.
943. Adhan and Iqamah should be pronounced in correct Arabic. Hence, if they are pronounced in incorrect Arabic, or one letter is uttered for another, or if, for example, its translation is pronounced, it will not be valid.
944. Adhan and Iqamah for a prayer should be pronounced when the time for that prayer has set in. If a person pronounces them before time, whether it be intentionally or due to forgetfulness, his action is void, except when the time of namaz sets in during the namaz being offered, then that is valid, as explained in rule 752.
945. If a person doubts before pronouncing Iqamah, whether he has pronounced Adhan, he should pronounce Adhan. But, if he doubts during Iqamah whether he has pronounced Adhan, the pronouncing of Adhan is not necessary.
946. If before pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah, a person doubts whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, he should pronounce the preceding part. But, if he doubts when in the process of pronouncing a part of Adhan or Iqamah whether he has pronounced the part preceding it, it is not necessary to pronounce that part.
947. It is Mustahab that while pronouncing Adhan, a person should stand facing Qibla and should have performed Wudhu or Ghusl. It is Mustahab to place the hands on his ears, and raise one's voice. Also, one should pause between the recitals of different sentences, and should not engage in talking during Adhan.
948. It is Mustahab that at the time of pronouncing Iqamah, a person is at ease, and he pronounces it with a lower voice. While it is Mustahab not to join the sentences of Iqamah, there should not be that gap between them which is normally given in Adhan.
949. It is Mustahab that between the Adhan and Iqamah, a man should take a step forward, or should sit down for a while, or perform sajdah, or recite any Dhikr, or Dua', or become quiet for some time, or talk, or offer two Rak'ats of prayers. However, talking between the Adhan and Iqamah of Fajr prayers, or offering prayers between the Adhan and Iqamah of Maghrib prayers, is not Mustahab.
950. It is recommended that a person who is appointed to pronounce Adhan is a righteous person ('Adil), with the knowledge of timings, and his voice is loud. He should pronounce Adhan from an elevated place.